Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Dynamic Tensegrity

There is no such thing as "empty space". If there were truly nothing between two objects, they would be in contact. Space cannot be occupied by nothing.

(image from hubblesite.org)

By Ed Duffy

Sponsors

Cool Links

Sensible Concepts in Physics, Beyond Math to Cause and Effect

Detecting the Ether by Webster Kehr

Aether Theories, Collation of scientific theories of the aether

Defining the Underlying Granularity of Matter

The Electric Universe by Wal Thornhill

The Electric Cosmos by Donald E. Scott

The Website of Halton Arp

Redshift, Tired light, The Hubble Constant and Ashmore's Paradox by Lyndon Ashmore

The General Theory Club by Serge Patlavskiy

Twain and Friends on Politics

Does Time Exist? by Henri Salles

Theory of Interaction by Eugene Savov

The Infinite Universe by Eit Gaastra

Douglas Adams

What is Objectivism
A primer for beginners

Tensegrity by Timothy Wilkin

Whole Systems by Flemming Funch

Cool Science Sites

Grand Unification by JT Nordberg

"The essential new quality implied by the quantum theory is... that a system cannot be analyzed into parts. This leads to the radically new notion of unbroken wholeness of the entire universe. You cannot take it apart. For if you do, what you end up with is not contained within the original whole. It is created by the act of analysis." - David Bohm - Wholeness and the Implicate Order

I think, therefore I may.....
I choose, therefore I can.....
I do therefore I am.....
I like green eggs and ham

Bucky's Mandate:

If the truth is known, tell it
And tell it right now!
----Buckminster Fuller

Truth is neither master nor servant. Truth is the estate.
----Me

Overview

The Dynamic Tensegrity Model of the Universe

Note: If you go with the premise that matter does what it does in the absence of an aether and apply sound reasoning, you will inevitably conclude that matter must contain some kind of embedded programming. The aforementioned premise is false.

The following is an attempt to lay the foundation for a Dynamic Tensegrity model of the universe. "Dynamic Tensegrity" refers to the discontinuous push (divergance) against the continual pull (convergence) within the constantly changing (Dynamic) systems that compose our universe. My Dynamic Tensegrity model is based upon common observation and applied reason. It is also based on the premise that an aether exists and is pervasive throughout the universe. The aether being composed of particles much smaller and faster than the human brain is able to process. This mass of particles exists in varying density depending upon the nature of the space it occupies. It is the 90% or so of the "missing mass" or "dark matter" that comprises a matter/aether system. As such, factors that affect the motion of the aether component of a system are the overriding factors that determine the motion of the system as a whole. Aether exists everywhere that it fits. Between galaxies as well as between sub-atomic particles and between the components of sub-atomic particles, etc. There is likely no limit to how small an aether particle can be. After all, how many times can you divide something in two? When would you have to stop and why? It is quite useful to analogize the relationship of the aether to matter with the relationship of air to water within Earth's atmosphere.


We can analogize matter and aether to water and air in the following manner: An air mass with high relative humidity is lower in air pressure than one with lower relative humidity. The water molecules have displaced some air, thus there are fewer air molecules per given area than in the lower humidity air mass. A higher pressure air mass coming in contact with the lower will envelope the lower pressure mass causing turbulence. In the same manner, aether containing more matter is lower in pressure than aether containing less matter. The higher pressure aether envelopes the lower, seeking equilibrium.
I have to clarify one point. The area of lowest aether density is the area of highest matter density. This is the area to which the aether is most drawn. One would expect to find the highest concentration of aether immediately surrounding the area of highest concentration of matter. Where a higher density mass of aether contacts a lower pressure mass of aether you have an "aether front" which behaves similar to a pressure front in our atmosphere. The attraction of aether to matter is not affected by the ability of the aether to penatrate the space to which it is attracted (lower density). It can't decide to give up and it doesn't get tired. Just as the water pressure against a deeply submerged submarine doesn't let up with time. The water still wants in, whether it can ever succeed or not.

Everything is drawn toward lower density with respect to itself. High pressure air masses will apply pressure around lower pressure masses. High density aether applies pressure around low density aether. While the aether may be quite dense between particles, when evaluating the interaction of systems, one must look at each system as a whole, comparing aether density in equivalent areas. High density matter applies pressure around low density matter. It is drawn in the direction of lower density. In the case of a galaxy, the matter at the very center is drawn equally in all directions as it is surrounded by lower "matter pressure" in all directions. The aether surrounding it is attracted to the point of lowest aether pressure (the galaxy's center) from all directions. The effect is equivalent to the matter being pulled toward the center (convergence) by the aether while the matter pushes out in all directions (divergence) forming a tensegrity structure. The matter at the center has a more limited range of movement than matter further out from the center where the draw is greater in one direction than another. The matter's momentum combined with the draw of the aether (which also circulates around each system) carries it in orbit around the center. Simply put, matter pushes against aether and aether pulls at matter.

If two objects come in contact with one another and neither breaches the aether front of the other, the matter within both systems will be most attracted to the point of contact, where the aether fronts meet. The fronts themselves repel each other and the momentum of the less massive system combined with the mutual repulsion of the circulating fronts causes the system to roll or orbit. The combined fronts also attract mass from the larger system as evidenced by the tides on Earth. It is the combined aether fronts of the Earth and Moon that pull on the water, not the moon itself.

If the aether front is breached by an object (a meteor entering Earth's aethersphere for example) the matter of the smaller system enters the the larger system and is quickly dispersed as the matter and aether seek to reestablish equillibrium. The manner in which this occurs is dependent on the relative masses and densities of the systems, trajectory, velocity and other factors. An invading system enters an area of relatively low aether pressure compared to the area it just left. The aether pressure continues to diminish as the object gets nearer the dense center of the planet and it accelerates into it.

It should be noted that in the air/water analogy the presence of water within the air mass creates lower air pressure. The water itself is composed of Hydrogen and Oxygen, both of which are also components of the air. Aether and Matter may have common constituent parts.

Gravity


The effect we call gravity may be explained in the following manner. Every particle, no matter how small is an aether/matter system. A bit of matter surrounded by an "aethersphere". An important point to keep in mind is that if the ratio of aether/matter is on the same scale for small particles as it is for galaxies (about 9/1) the aether component of any aether/matter system is the driver. The matter is just along for the ride. This is why, even though matter is attracted to aether (attempting to move toward lower matter pressure) the repulsion of aether from itself (seeking lower pressure) is an overriding factor. Matter moves toward more massive matter not because of an attraction of matter to matter but because of the relatively high aether pressure surrounding it being attracted to the lower relative aether pressure at the center of the more massive object. A particle of matter (surrounded by its own aether system or "aethersphere") intersects the Earths aether system with sufficient momentum to carry it through the front. The aether surrounding the intruding matter has entered an area of lower aether density (relative to its) and accelerates into it, carrying the matter with it. The speed with which the system comes apart as aether meets aether and matter meets matter is dependent on the mass, density, velocity and trajectory of the intruding system as well as the conditions present in the atmosphere it travels through. Once broken down the the constituent aether and matter from the intruding system will seek equillibrium within the new system.

It is important to keep in mind I am not talking about a stationary sphere surrounded by a static mass, but a rotating sphere immersed in a fluid mass. Also, every particle, no matter how small is actually a matter/aether system in or seeking equillibrium. In terms of tensegrity, the aether provides a continuous pull (a convergent force) against the discontinuous push (divergent force) of the less pervasive matter. Throughout the universe systems are continually developing and breaking down, hence the name "Dynamic Tensegrity". Note: In actuality the aether is pushing in at the matter from all directions. The effect is the same as a pull from the center on the matter. I refer to it as a pull for the sake of consistency with tensegrity terminology and because it concisely illustrates the net effect.

The aether pressure against an object is measurable. It's commonly known as G Force.

Magnetism

A magnetite crystal exchanges electrons in a manner that constitutes an electric current. This produces a magnetic field or aether flow perpendicular to the current. The current acts like a fan blade, drawing in aether at one end (pole) and pushing it out the other. A magnet therefore could be called an aether pump.
Magnetism is aether flow in above normal concentration. Aether is pervasive which means it exists wherever it fits, including the space between sub-atomic particles. A gradual density gradient results in gravity, a more pronounced wave of aether gives us magnetism. A sudden, substantial increase in pressure results in plasma discharge.

Charge

Electric current creates a magnetic field because both the electrons and the aether (aether flow = magnetism) are negatively charged. That is, they are of the same "stuff" and not of the same nature as what we refer to as positively charged items. The electrons negative charge comes from a dense aether front surrounding what must be a very small, but densely packed bit of matter. As the electrons flow they push away aether creating pulsating waves eminating perpendicular to the flow of electrons. A negative charge then is a very localized area of high pressure aether. A positive charge is a localized area of low pressure aether. High pressure moves toward, or is attracted to low pressure.
The reverse scenerio goes something like this. Waves of aether (magnetic field lines) acclerate through metal because of the low relative aether pressure within the metal. The accelerated aether (negatively charged) pushes at the electrons causing a current.

Recycling

Aether comes from the breakdown of matter. If this were a one way street the universe would have run out of matter long ago. In my Dynamic Tensegrity model aether may be converted back into matter in the following manner: In the dense core of the galaxy and perhaps stars, matter implodes and breaks down into aether (this dynamic draws in more matter). The aether pressure now being temporarily greater at the center of the system than external to it, it jets out of the system and enters the aether front. This dynamic occurs in oscillating fashion and acts as a matter to aether conversion pump. Under intense pressure in the aether front the constituent components of the aether bond to form a variety of new entities depending on the specific conditions present when they form. The new entity becomes a new matter/aether system and heads toward lower aether pressure relative to its current environment, precipitating into the galaxy or given enough forward momentum, exits the system into intergallactic space. A similar cycle may occur within all systems on all size scales.

Galaxy Reproduction

If a stream of high density aether (more commonly known as a magnetic field line), approaches a galaxy, the galaxies aether front deflects the stream around it and it reconverges on the other side (similar to running water over a saturated sponge). This creates very high aether pressure areas at both the point of initial contact and the point of reconvergence. These high pressure areas can pull matter out of the galaxy. The denser the matter, the more vulnerable it is. Accumulation of heavy metal would be most vulnerable. Matter yanked out of the parent galaxy in this fashion suddenly finds itself in an extremely high pressure environment relative to the one it just left. It implodes, scattering the matter and creating a new low pressure system which may develop into a new galaxy. An implosion of sufficient size might trigger a series of such events as the expanding low pressure system creates waves of high density aether along its front, which may again draw matter from the parent galaxy upon impact.

Eta Carinae



The image shown above from Hubblesite illustrates the dynamic I described in Galaxy Reproduction, except here you have the result of an aether jet stream (or massive magnetic field line), crossing paths with a star. The dual spherical explosions being the result of matter drawn from the star by high pressure aether at the point of initial contact and at the point of reconvergence. The verticle explosion between the two spherical ones being the result of their converging aether fronts drawing out additional matter. As noted on Hubblesite the star in question survived this encounter. This is because the implosion/explosions took place outside the star, not within it.

The matter/aether cycle

In my view, aether is not a single entity, but a term applied to a mixture of a variety of entities. In intergallactic space the mixture is more homogenous as the entities that comprise it are smaller and more dispersed. Another way to look at the situation as a whole is that matter radiates aether. The aether surrounding a given area of matter takes on characteristics dependent on the make up of the matter from which the aether came. Aether is continually applying pressure , forcing matter against matter, causing it to break down into aether and consequently creating areas of aether density in which aether components bond to become matter. The cycle continues because the system is in motion creating ever changing pressure conditions throughout.

More on the Aether/Atmosphere analogy

To further the analogy of aether to Earth's atmosphere consider the following: Heating and cooling are adding and removing intruding "stuff" into an air mass (although noone has isolated a "heat" particle. Heat displaces air, creating more space between molecules. There are fewer of them, moving faster in a given area, lower pressure. Removing heat causes the reverse. The intruding entity need only be different enough from the mass as a whole to displace it in order to cause pressure variance and thereby motion. The displacing entity may be composed of the same stuff as the mass, just configured differently. For example H2O in air, or any single component of air present in higher concentration than normal. A large (above normal concentration) quantity of pure oxygen within an air mass will affect the pressure of the mass.

Supernova

What would happen if two electrons were to collide under great pressure, momentarily dissipating their surrounding aether fronts under the Dynamic Tensegrity model? The matter configuration at the core of an electron would be a denser configuration under more pressure than anything we have directly observed. The sudden release of of such pressure in the presence of other densely packed electrons would likely cause a chain reaction of implosion/explosion that would make the most powerful nuclear bomb look like a puff beetle by comparison.

E still Equals mc^2

E still equals mc^2. E=mc^2 is a statement of the energy contained in a mass of matter within an aether/mattter system. Why does E=mc2? Because at near light speed matter is converted to energy. At maximum velocity (c) the bonds holding the matter components together break down, thus the maximum amount of energy you can get from matter is at it's maximum achievable velocity (c). Why do the bonds break down? Perhaps because the aether pressure within the particles rises to match the ambient aether pressure.

On The "Electric Universe"

I think Mr. Wal Thornhill is on the right track with the dynamics involved in the "Electric Universe". My own suspicion is that when aether is compressed beyond a certain point it's energy is transformed into light and heat in the form of plasma discharges. When it's compressed to a lesser degree we recognize it in the form of magnetic field lines.


And Now For Something Completely Different

Below are some thoughts on a variety of other heady topics. Before you dig in, I want to make clear so as not to be misinterpretted....

Truth and Reality are objective. They exist independent and regardless of anyone's acceptance, acknowlegement or recognition of them.

Gluons and Muons and Quarks, Oh My!

It is possible that the short lived sub-sub atomic particles that are created during collisions in particle accelerators are akin to clouds that form when very localized pressure variances are created in the aether during the collsions. You get a similar effect when a jet plane breaks the sound barrier. The type of cloud you get depends on the specific conditions and the cloud quickly disappears as the low pressure area collapses. Science has instead given particle status to the various configurations and attributed forces to them. The analogy would be if meteoroligists concluded that cumulous clouds emit low pressure, while cirrus clouds emit high pressure. Viewing these phenomenon while denying the existance of an aether is like trying to explain clouds while denying the existance of air.

Entanglement

Okay, let me give this entanglement thing a shot. I'll apply Occum's Razor, a bit of deductive reasoning and the basic assumption that sub-quantum, faster than light particles do in fact exist. Photons (a) and (b) are created within the same environment. Because of this the aether particles within them resonate at identicle frequencies and in indenticle patterns. When separated they continue to affect each other regardless of distance, in real time. This tells us that they are exchanging particles at faster than light speed. Their identicle natures reinforce each other. When (a) encounters another photon, (c), the faster than light emissions from (c) interact with those from (a) until the identicly oscillating particles between (a) and (b) no longer sync up and the connection is broken. The manner and degree to which (a) is affected by the break in the connection tells an observer something about the properties of (c). The exchange between (a) and (b) now broken, this is the only bit of information (b) gives to (a). For this dynamic to be useful to humans in communication one would need to apply a continuous, highly focused stream of entangled photons since each will only supply one bit of information.

Real time communication using entangled photons

To achieve real time communication over great distances one could create a stream of pairs of entangled photons, split the pairs into two streams. One remains localized, the other is sent to the sender of the communication. The stream sent to the sender reads the message which is instantly transmitted to the local entangled photons. The technical trick is translating sound or text into quantum states and vice versa, and of course creating the entangled pairs. Good luck with that. There would be an initial delay equivalent to the time it takes for the first photon to reach the transmitter, after that, as long as the stream is continuous communication would be in real time as far as we're concerned.
A civilization advanced enough to be communicating in this manner (faster than light transmission) would also likely be using multiband encryption. This is the simple process of transmitting information on multiple frequencies instead of just one. For example if you were sending 5 bits of data you might send the first one on frequency A, the second on D, the third on H, the fourth on A again and the last one on F. Even if one monitored freqeuncies A through H while the tranmission was incoming, if one didn't have the key one would never even recognize it as a transmission. The Earth could be in the middle of an intergallactic information super-highway and we would be none the wiser.

Time and Space

Space is occupied by data, Time is the observation of data. Data in this sense is everything, matter and energy, known and yet to be discovered. I define it as data because that is the way we perceive things. When you look at a mug on your table you recognize it as a mug because of its properties. Enough of these properties are transmitted to your retina by reflected photons for your brain to identify the object as a mug. Your brain has accumulated a piece of information: there is a mug on the table. Information is data. The mug, its location, its color, its size, its contents are all data. The mug does not enter your mind in order for you to identify or interact with it, the information about it does. You gather the information with your senses and manipulate it with your body. When you reach out and pick up the mug you are manipulating data. You've changed its location and its temperature. There is an exchange of data between your hand and the mug. Heat is transferred one way or the other depending on relative temperatures. This constitutes an information exchange or an observation. The temperature of your hand relative to the mug is transferred to the surface of the mug and vice versa. Heat, like everything else, seeks lower pressure (or less heat). The brain is informed that heat has entered or left the hand, how much and at what rate. All of this data is processed and you develop a sense of what's going on between the configuration of data that is your hand and the configuration of data that is the mug. The calculations are instant (from our perspective) and automatic. While we are not consciously aware of the individual calculations or bits of data interaction we are aware of the results or conclusions, upon which we can base conscious calculation and further conclusions.

Time

Time = Observation. How do you know that an increment of time has passed? You must take note of or experience something. It may be a thought, a motion, a sound, a smell, but something must "happen" for one to experience a passage of time. In computer language an observation is the intake of a bit of data. How do particles make observations? In this sense an observation is again the intake of a bit of data. Data being any bit of matter or energy received or contacted by the particle in question. Admittedly a novel use of the term "observation" but I think a word that best describes the notion of the receipt of information. I'm not alleging that inanimate objects think, only that they interact and effect one another. It is the ocurrance of interaction that constitutes time. The answer to the question "If a tree falls in the forest and there is noone there to observe it does time happen?" is Yes. There are still plenty of observations being made, even if not by humans.
The means by which we measure time is necessarily objective. We have to use a common yardstick in order to synchronize our activities. By worldwide consensus we measure time by specific common events (objective measures): Revolutions of the Earth around the Sun, rotations of the Earth. We assume these events to occur at a constant rate (a fair assumption) which is fine as long as we all agree on what 3pm EST means. If you were to leave the Earth and travel through space at the speed of light while I remained here and you were gone for one Earth year, one year would have passed for you and one year would have passed for me, regardless of how much your body did or didn't change and regardless of your perception. You would have experienced less time personally because fewer interactions per given area would take place at higher speeds, but by our common yardstick (rotations and revolutions of the Earth) it still took you a year.
In a universal sense time is the sum total of all interactions throughout the universe. While your in a deep sleep you may not experience time personally (consciously), but it still takes place all around you. If everything in the universe were to come to a dead stop you could say time stopped, which would be irrrelevent as there would be noone and nothing to take note of it. To measure its progression we simply count the recurrance of the same event: rotations of the Earth, revolutions around the Sun, etc. By our chosen yardsticks if all of the motion of objects and particles within the solar system were to slow down simultaneously, the rate of progression of time would appear to have slowed. But activity elsewhere in the galaxy might continue at the same rate. For a measure of time to be reliable it must be based on an activity or event whose rate of recurrance remains constant throughout the desired coverage area.


Mass and the speed of light

It's been said that when a particle reaches the speed of light its mass becomes zero and its volume infinite. This is perceptually correct, but only from our frame of reference. Faster than light entities are not observable, therefore seem to have no mass from our perspective. Their volume seems infinite since given the brain's processing speed, at any given moment a faster than light entity might as well be everywhere. I believe this is where the problem of "dark matter" stems from. The "missing mass" of the universe isn't missing, it's just beyond our range of observation (too fast and/or too small) and so we have assumed it doesn't exist and by our definitions (based on our frame of reference) it has no mass. In objective reality it does have mass and collectively (as aether) obeys the fundamental laws of physics. Rather than assume that there exist particles faster and smaller than we can perceive directly, science has chosen to attribute the observed effects to undefinable forces, incomprehensible extra dimensions and arbitrary changes to the laws of physics based on relative size.

Relativity Speaking

At the speed of light, aether/matter systems break down entirely and are converted to aether. In conventional terms, they attain zero mass and infinite volume (perceptually speaking).
The gamma factor could actually be the net rate at which a system breaks down resulting in length contraction and time dilation. The system actually loses mass and volume and processes within it are slowed down until, as velocity decreases, aether reenters the system and equillibrium is restored.
Objects at high speeds also experience additional momentum, again expressed with the gamma factor, which could also be due to the radiation of aether from the system into the wake of a very fast moving object.

Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity Dynamic Tensegrity